8月3日2018中国国际太阳能十项全能竞赛在太阳能德州小镇开幕，太阳能小镇里吊车林立、热闹非凡，来自全球9个国家和地区的37所大学组成的19支参赛队伍在这里建造着各自的太阳能住宅。其中由倍立达公司承建，美国华盛顿大学圣路易斯大学WashU LOTUS BLD团队设计的-莲花之居-在现场拉开了一场太阳能与建筑的对话，用科技呈现建筑之美，建筑与环境相融共生，为更美的地球，一起光耀我能。
On August 3, the 2018 China international Solar Decathlon in Dezhou Shandong, a town full of cranes, with 19 teams from 37 universities in nine different countries or regions around the world building their Solar Homes. The Lotus house designed by WashU LOTUS BLD team of Washington university, st. Louis, USA, and contractor is Beilida company, initiated a dialogue between Solar Energy and Architecture on the site. Using science and technology to present the beauty of architecture, architecture and the environment blend together, for a more beautiful earth, and do something together.
House Name: Lotus House
Design Team Name: Team WashU LOTUS BLD
Curtain Wall Manufacturer: Beilida-Tangshan Production Factory
Design Concept: It is vital to reconsider a symbiotic relationship between the building and nature.Traditionally the building has had a negative effect on the environment: high levels of CO2 emissions, waste, exploitation of materials.and enormous energy usage. Team WashU focused on how to reduce waste generated on the construction site. lessen CO2 emitted during the process.and save materials.One key way to achieve this is by reducing and ultimately phasing out the CO2 emissions produced by the building sector – through the transformation of building design.construction.and operation.
Why the Lotus? - From the beginning, Team WashU has been questioning how to achieve the most energy efficient design. We found our answer to be in Nature. Our design philosophy is a marriage of the most innovative technology with Nature. This project is an application of 3D printing technology with the most significant flower in the Chinese culture-the Lotus-to achieve highly sustainable results in the design.construction, and footprint outcome.
This is the reason why Team WashU chose to use 3D printing technology as the backbone of the project. This technology saves energy by eliminating steps in production,using substantially less material,enabling the reuse of by-products,and producing lighter products. Remanufacturing parts through advanced additive manufacturing and surface treatment processes,can return end-of-life products to as-new condition,with one product using only 2−25% of the energy required to make a new one.
The manufacturing process of the building firstly includes five-axis carving making of the building wall mold (five-axis CNC machine tool is a kind of machine tool with high technology content and high precision, which is specially used to process complex curved surface) with high precision. The mold material can be used repeatedly, greatly reducing the labor cost.In the production process, GRC adopts spray technology to shape in the mold, and the veneer layer and GRC fiber reinforced layer are formed once to form the final exterior wall product.(the uniform and good interweaving patterns and orientations of glass fibers are one of the key technologies in the manufacture of high-quality GRC, and the overall error can be controlled within 1 mm with the rich experience of workers.)Such manufacturing processes greatly reduce material consumption.
Although the initial price of a 3D printed mold is much higher than a typical wood mold, a wooden mold can only be re-used twice, but a 3D printed mold can be used a minimum of 100 times. When we take this recyclable time into consideration, the price is reversed after 5 reuses. So, imagine that a 3D printed mold is used 100 times, the difference between the two methods is tremendous. Team WashU also decided to 3D print all the furniture in the Lotus House, in order to fully commit to the sustainable method of design.
Beilida-Tangshan Production Factory -T&D
Production - Sculpture Mold
Wall Panel Transpor
▼地基铺设 Foundation Laid
Main Wall Hoisting、Exterior Wall Hoisting
▼顶部吊装 Roof Hoisting
GRC With Solar Energy
The Lotus House is 650 sqf design which focuses around human circulation. Team WashU wanted to maximize the flexibility, by creating a center core which allows for various functions and spaces around it to stretch and flow throughout the house. By creating a large open space in the center of the house, this courtyard functions as a dining space which can be changed by opening sliding doors. This space is dragged into the kitchen, living area, bedroom area and study room. The center of the house is focused around the most important function of the house- a gathering space for people, where they can eat. This courtyard space then flows into the rest of the house. We want to create an open environment, which allows for natural human mobility, and promotes a healthy Feng Shui.
The plan is organized around the core, which is the dining room. In Chinese culture, the dining room the most important space for the whole family for it functions as an area for collective gathering; therefore, it is the most public and intriguing space in a house. With a circular organization, the centralized dining hall is also connected with the rest of the programs/rooms visually and physically. The organic lotus form provides subdivisions with the curved walls. Moreover, the 3D printed furniture pieces are all inbuilt and highly customized, allowing for every room to be more clearly characterized and defined. The circular plan is also a suggestion of the most common daily sequential living: coming home, setting down bags, preparing food, sharing and communicating with others in the central dining room, and relaxing in the living room, in finally, in the bedroom. The programs are organized in certain way to define how people lives inside the house.